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ASP.NET 2.0 Quickstart Tutorials

HTTP Handlers and Factories

ASP.NET provides a low-level request/response API that enables developers to use .NET Framework classes to service incoming HTTP requests. Developers accomplish this by authoring classes that support the System.Web.IHTTPHandler interface and implement the ProcessRequest() method. Handlers are often useful when the services provided by the high-level page framework abstraction are not required for processing the HTTP request. Common uses of handlers include filters and CGI-like applications, especially those that return binary data.

Each incoming HTTP request received by ASP.NET is ultimately processed by a specific instance of a class that implements IHTTPHandler. IHttpHandlerFactory provides the infrastructure that handles the actual resolution of URL requests to IHttpHandler instances. In addition to the default IHttpHandlerFactory classes provided by ASP.NET, developers can optionally create and register factories to support rich request resolution and activation scenarios.

Configuring HTTP Handlers and Factories

HTTP handlers and factories are declared in the ASP.NET configuration as part of a web.config file. ASP.NET defines an <httphandlers> configuration section where handlers and factories can be added and removed. Settings for HttpHandlerFactory and HttpHandler are inherited by subdirectories.

For example, ASP.NET maps all requests for .aspx files to the PageHandlerFactory class in the global machine.config file:
<httphandlers>
  ...
  <add verb="*" path="*.aspx" type="System.Web.UI.PageHandlerFactory,System.Web" />
  ...
</httphandlers>

Creating a Custom HTTP Handler

The following sample creates a custom HttpHandler that handles all requests to "SimpleHandler.axd".

VB Simple HttpHandler
Run Sample View Source

A custom HTTP handler can be created by implementing the IHttpHandler interface, which contains only two methods. By calling IsReusable, an HTTP factory can query a handler to determine whether the same instance can be used to service multiple requests. The ProcessRequest method takes an HttpContext instance as a parameter, which gives it access to the Request and Response intrinsics. In the following sample, request data is ignored and a constant string is sent as a response to the client.

		
public class SimpleHandler : IHttpHandler {
  public void ProcessRequest(HttpContext context) {
    context.Response.Write("Hello World!");
  }

  public bool IsReusable {
    get {
      return true;
    }
  } 

}
C#

After placing the handler class definition in the application's \App_Code directory, the handler class can be specified as a target for requests. In this case, all requests for "SimpleHandler.axd" will be routed to an instance of the SimpleHandler class, which lives in the namespace Acme.SimpleHandler.
<httphandlers>
  <add verb="*" path="SimpleHandler.aspx" type="Acme.SimpleHandler" />
</httphandlers>